Roman road Transmarinian-Mediolanum-Apiaria
The immediate military command in the border provinces, such as Skitia, Dolna Mizia and coastal Dakiya was assigned to the duces subordinate to the commander of the army in Trakia, respective Ilirik. These duces managed the military parts located in the towns and castles along Danube river, for the Danube flotilla, for the strengthening and for the whole defense system in the Danube coast.
The border army was situated along the Danube river. With no messages and roads the authorities were vulnerable. Tha lack of infrastructure and communications question the legitimacy.
At the time of the Roman empire (I-III century) the highway reached a length of around 90 000 km.That makes two times the length of the equator. The secondary roads were even longer.
The classical Roman highway reached 6 m width and had 4 layers. The lower one was made from rubble and small stones, then rubble, flooded with mortar. The upper layer was made of massive stone, limestone and basalt plates. The road had crubs on both sides.The mountain roads were significantly narrow, sometimes hewn in the stones. The plain roads on the other hand were built on embankments so the rainwater can easily flow away.
Every Roman mile (1rm = 1482m) had a roadside column, usually cylindrical. The name of the rulling emperor, the provincial governor, the ones who built the column were written there so as the distance to the nearest village. The border areas, a couple of miles away, storey watchtowers were built. The guards signalized with smoke and fire, especially when they expected an invasion or local troublemakers. There were stations 15-20 Roman miles away one from another. Some of them were used only for switching the animals. Others had a village status. There lived and worked 8-10 people, whose boss had only 6 days off a year. The harnessed cattle could reach a number of 40-50 animals. People worked there as grooms, blacksmiths, police, slaves, tax officials. There were taverns with food and beds, bathrooms, barns for the animals and stores for temporary keep of the merchandise.
The staff had their own rooms and land for cultivation. Duties and taxes were collected on every bigger station. There they usually organized constant markets and fairs. The provinces Mizia and Trakia were found here by the Romans. In some places they have found even older Trakian ruads.
There were new military-strategic roads with significant meaning coming with the new authorities. Today, on the right Danube river shore, there are no roads that could be rationally used. In many districts the viacles should pass Northern Bulgaria and then wend to the big river.
By the time of Tiberius emperor (14-37 year), through IV Skitian and V Macedonian legion started the building of the strategic Danube road. It started from Viminacium (Costolats, Serbia) and Iron doors, then continues to Dorticum, the outflow of Timock river (Vrav village, Vidin), Bononiq (Vidin), the city of Ratsiaria (Archar village, Lom) and the legion camp of Nove (Svishtov). The highway continues through Yatrus ( Krivina village, Ruse), Seksaginta Prista (Ruse), Transmariska (Tutrakan) and the legion camp Dorustorum (Silistra). The road then turned northeast and directed to the Danube delta. It was fully constructed by Trayan emperor (98-117).
The Central, or Diagonal road was another international one. It came from Belgrad and headed the direction of Naisus (Nish), Remesiana (Bela Palanka) and Tures (Pirot), then the Dragoman passage, Kostinbrod and Serdika (Sofia), directed to the Thrakian valley and the biggest city in our land – Filipopol (Plovdiv). The big road arthery directed then to Adrianapolis (Edirne) and Bazantion, later called Constantinopole (Tsarigrad, Istanbul).
The third transcontinental road was fully constructed when Trayan controls. It came from Panonia (Hungary) and Dakia (Southwestern Romania), continues through Danube river to Ulpiq Eskus, than passes Riben and Plene, the mountain pass in Mizia, Hemus mountain, Troyan notch and Trakia to Filipopol. Than it headed to the Rodopi, Thrakian sea, also called Aegean sea. The old road of Via Egnatsia coming from Middle and South Italy, following Dures in Albania and the Aegean shores, Marmara sea to Bisantion-Istanbul was constructed.
Another class roads were the between provincial and the inner provincial ones. The Trakian built a road between Black sea, the Danube delta and Bizantion. The Romans reconstructed it. Unfortunately, this road was not a part of the road arthery.
The Black sea fleet handles most of the transportation.
The sea transportation was a cheaper and a faster one.
Through the middle of Dolna Mizia a local road of great importance was build – from Odesos-Marcianopol (Devnya), Nichopolis as Istrum (Nikup, Veliko Turnovo) with a nod in Abritus (Razgrad). It headed from Nikup to Melta (Lovech) and Montana. There was another nod from the last station, to Ratsiariq (Northwest) and Serdika (Southwest). Nichopolis ad Istrum connected the Danube river through the local road artheries Ulpiya Eskus, Nove, Seksaginta Prista. Durostorum connected Marcianopol and then Deultum (Debelt, Burgas).
The important Trakian local artheries were: Filipopol – Augusta Trayana (Stara Zagora), through Kabile (next to Yambol) to Anhialo (Black sea); From Serdika to Pautaliya (Kjustendil), Skupi (Skopye) and White Sea.
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